In it, Hanlon offers an argument against regular human space exploration in favor of dedicated robotic missions devoted exclusively to astrobiology research. Whether via orbiters, landers, rovers, or telescopes, he argues that working to answer the question of whether or not we are alone in the universe has the advantages of “being scientifically valid, being relatively cheap and connecting with the public imagination.”
Some concessions about the efficiency of human explorers aside, Hanlon makes it perfectly clear how he feels about all research that isn’t astrobiology-related, deriding the Space Shuttle program as “pointless” and the International Space Station as an “orbiting white elephant.” He lauds the recent spectacular landing of the Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, as a model mission, while dismissing the broad appeal of human exploration to the public as “nebulous” and merely “vicarious excitement.”
Well, despite Hanlon’s opnion, there are good and valid reasons to support human space exploration. Because the manned-versus-unmanned space program argument has been done to death, I won’t rehash the whole diatribe here except to offer three quotes:
- “Robots are important also. If I don my pure-scientist hat, I would say just send robots; I’ll stay down here and get the data. But nobody’s ever given a parade for a robot. Nobody’s ever named a high school after a robot. So when I don my public-educator hat, I have to recognize the elements of exploration that excite people. It’s not only the discoveries and the beautiful photos that come down from the heavens; it’s the vicarious participation in discovery itself.” — Neil deGrasse Tyson
- “The greatest gain from [human] space travel consists in the extension of our knowledge. In a hundred years this newly won knowledge will pay huge and unexpected dividends.” — Werner von Braun
- “The dinosaurs became extinct because they didn’t have a space program. And if we become extinct because we don’t have a space program, it’ll serve us right!” — Arthur C. Clarke/Larry Niven
However, there is a much more intriguing aspect to Hanlon’s article, one that likely went largely unnoticed; A particular line in Hanlon’s article caught my eye, where he supercedes the tired, man vs. machine debate and instead advises that NASA should “leave the flag-planting, for now, to the privateers and to other nations.”
To my knowledge, this is amongst the first times the word has been used in a human space exploration context. Let’s take a closer look.In its 16th-to-19th-century context, “privateer” referred to a private individual or seafaring ship authorized by a government during war to attack foreign trade shipments. These charges weren’t the equivalent of a charter, as the privateering ships went unpaid by the government. Instead, they relied on investors who were willing to gamble on lucrative captured goods and enemy ships.
This made the privateer fundamentally different from a mercenary. In my mind, they became something more akin to Adventure Capitalists.
While not a direct parallel, the usage of this term in the modern space exploration context invokes tantalizing suggestions. Might the government issue a non-binding license to claim unused space resources (satellites, junk) by their own or other nations, or perhaps to operate in proximity to national assets, (such as the ISS), in the act of attempting a rescue?
In this case, would private industry underwrite the cost of a spacecraft launch for tens of millions of dollars if the case for a suitable potential reward be made? Might such a reward be measured in terms of salvaged materials or serviced satellites? Perhaps purchasing a rocket and a spacecraft to have on standby in the event of an on-orbit astronaut emergency (medical, technical) would be lucrative if a successful rescue mission were independently launched and the crew recovered? (Is a modest 100-200% return-on-investment too much to ask for the value of averted disaster and the possible loss of highly-trained human lives?) In this context, venturing to fund a privateer is no more risky than drilling an exploratory oil well – the trick is nailing the reward.
“Space Privateering,” then, suggests a new form of orbital venture capitalism that exists irrespective of government charters. It means having a ship, a launch capability, and the foresight to use them when and where it might matter most to planetside governments and/or corporations.
So, how about it? Are any corporations willing to bet against the house and fund privateers as international rescue, salvage or repair ships? Would the FAA consider rapid privateer launch licensing?
I say we work to find out. Calling all space privateers!